On 16 May, 1887 the Central State School opened as a co-educational school with 54 pupils enrolling on the first day. By June 1887, 115 pupils attended the school. Mr J.B. Freeman was the first Head Teacher - a position he held until 13th July, 1906.
In 1898, the school became a boys' school when the Girls' and Infants' Primary School was opened on 15 August, 1898. Then on 1 January, 1929, the Central State School reverted to a co-educational school when the Girls' and Infants' school closed because of drastically decreased attendances due to the closure of the mine for a period of time.
In the mine years, when the town had a larger population there was actually 5 State Primary Schools here, including Baree State School, Calliungal State School and others. Currently Mt Morgan Central is the town's only Primary School and does an excellent job meeting the educational needs of Mt Morgan Children and families.
Over the years, the school has had more buildings added to cope with its growing educational demands. As well, much needed additional playground areas have been purchased.
In 2010 as part of the Australian Federal Government spending to counter the Global Financial Crisis, a brand new library was built featuring a large computer room, media room, cabinet room for meetings, kitchen and library area for students to learn and read.